Work Experience

  • Todate 2018

    Doçent

    Near East University, Tıp Fakültesi Biyofizik AD

  • 2017 2012

    Yardımcı Doçent

    Near East University, Tıp Fakültesi Biyofizik Anabilim Dalı

  • 2012 2011

    Postdoc

    Marmara Üniversitesi, Klinik Farmakoloji

  • 2011 2008

    Araştırma Görevlisi

    Marmara Üniversitesi, Biyofizik

  • 2008 2000

    Araştırma Görevlisi

    Marmara Üniversitesi, Fizik

Education & Training

  • Ph.D. 2012

    Biyofizik

    Marmara Üniversitesi

  • Master...

    Fizik

    Marmara Üniversitesi

  • Bachelor2000

    Fizik

    İstanbul Üniversitesi

Honors, Awards and Grants

  • 2016
    YDÜ DESAM Bilimsel Yayın Ödülü
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    sci yayın sayısı hk
  • 2015
    YDÜ DESAM Bilimsel Başarı Ödülü.
    image
    sci yayın sayısı hk
  • 2016
    YDÜ DESAM Bilimsel Başarı Ödülü
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    sci yayın sayısı hk
  • 2013
    8.Ulusal Tıp Eğitimi Kongresi, Poster 2.lik Ödülü.
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    TEGED (Tıp Eğitimini Geliştirme Derneği)
  • 2018
    YDÜ DESAM Genç Araştırmacı Ödülü.
    image
    sci yayın sayısı hk
  • 2015
    YDÜ DESAM Genç Araştırmacı Ödülü
    image
    sci yayın sayısı hk
  • 2013
    48. Ulusal Psikiyatri Kongresi, ödüle değer sözlü bildiri
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    2cilik ödülü
  • 2013
    Takdir Belgesi: Marmara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü
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    '' Tıp Fakültesi En iyi SCI Yayın Ödülü''.
  • 1994
    TUBİTAK Matematik Olimpiyatları
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    3.

Research Projects

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SOCIAL ISOLATION AND PREDATOR SCENT TESTS ALTER BRAIN BDNF LEVELS, DIFFERENTIALLY ACCORDING TO GENDER, IN RATS

Conference Paper Turkish Journal of Biochemistry, Volume 41, Issue 3 suppl, 2016, Pages p-043

Abstract

Objectives: Gender differences in stress models are not studied in detail. We compared different stress conditions on brain BDNF levels, in social isolation (SIT) and predator scent tests (PST). BDNF levels in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala were compared, effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLU) treatment were evaluated. Materials and Methods: For SIT, animals were kept individually for 1 month and for PST, rats were exposed to dirty cat litter for 10 min at the first day. FLU was given (5 mg/kg, ip) through stress. Groups were evaluated in elevated plus maze, anxiety scores were calculated. Brain BDNF levels were determined in brain by Western blot. Results: SIT and PST induced anxiety in both male and female rats, females having greater anxiety scores. FLU restored anxiety scores in both sexes an setting (p<0.01). Male and female rats exhibited reduced cortical BDNF levels in SIT (p<0.001). Hippocampal BDNF expression was lowered in SIT and PST in both sexes. Female rats had 40% lower BDNF expression than males in amygdala in SIT. FLU did not restore reduced brain BDNF in males in hippocampus and amygdala, but restored in hippocampus, in females. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that sex differences must be considered in studies related to mood disorders, and suggest that BDNF expression in different brain regions are altered differentially in a gender-dependent manner in rats. Antianxiety effect of FLU is not mediated through increasing BDNF activity in cortex in both genders. Increased BDNF in hippocampus and amygdala may reflect its antidepressant effect in female rats, but not in males.


Özet

Amaç: Stres modellerinde cinsiyet farklılıkları ayrıntılı olarak incelenmemiştir. Sosyal izolasyon (SIT) ve yırtıcı kokusu testleri (PST), beyin BDNF düzeyleri cinsiyetlere göre karşılaştırılmıştır. BDNF seviyesi western blotting ile korteks, hipokampus ve amigdalada kıyaslanarak, kronik fluoksetin (FLU) (5 mg/kg,ip) tedavisinin etkileri değerlendirilmiştir. Gereç ve Yöntem: SIT oluşturmada sıçanlar 1ay tekli muhafaza edilirken, PST’de kirli kedi kumuna 10dk maruz bırakılmışlardır. Anksiyete indeksleri EPM’de skorlanmıştır. BDNF seviyelerini belirlemede Western blotting yapılmıştır. Bulgular: SIT ve PST gruplarında anksiyete indeksi her iki cinsiyette de artmıştır. Kronik FLU tedavisi anksiyetedeki artışı geri döndürmüştür (p<0.01). SIT gruplarında korteksde BDNF seviyesi her iki cinsiyette de azalmıştır (p <0.001). Hipokampal BDNF ekspresyon seviyesi her iki stres koşulunda ve her iki cinsiyette de azalmıştır. SIT’e maruz bırakılan dişi sıçanlarda BDNF ekspresyonu amigdalar bölgede erkek sıçanlardan %40 daha az bulunmuştur. FLU tedavisi erkek sıçanların hipokampus ve amigdala bölgesinde BDNF seviyesindeki azalmalarını geri döndürememişken, dişi sıçanlarda geri dönüş alınmıştır. Sonuç: Bulgularımız, cinsiyet farklılıkları duygudurum bozuklukları ile ilgili çalışmalarda dikkate alınması gerektiğini göstermektedir ve beynin farklı bölgelerinde BDNF ekspresyon seviyeleri sıçanlarda cinsiyete bağımlı bir şekilde farklı olarak değişmiş olduğunu düşündürmektedir. Her iki cinsiyette de kortekste FLU’in anti-anksiyete etkisi BDNF aktivitesini artırarak aracılık etmemektedir. Hipokampus ve amigdala artan BDNF seviyesi dişi sıçanlarda FLU’nun antidepresan etkisini yansıtırken, erkek sıçanlar için aynı durum görülmemektedir.

HEPATITIS E VIRUS ANTIBODY PREVALANCE AMONG PERSONS WHO WORK WITH ANIMALS IN NORTH CYPRUS

Conference Paper Turkish Journal of Biochemistry, Volume 41, Issue 3 suppl, 2016, Pages p-044

Abstract

Objective: The objectives of the present study was to determine the seroprevalance of HEV infection in peoples who work with animals in Northern Cyprus. Material and Methods: Prevalance of HEV infection were determined in study 4 group population: persons without occupational exposure to animals; persons who work with animals; veterinarian and butcher. A total of 400 blood samples were collected. All serum samples were tested ELISA using a commercially available kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Ti-test were used for statistical analyses. P<0.05 was accepted as significant value. Results: In a study of 400 blood donors, the overall prevalance of anti-HEV IgG antibodies were 3,0%. The prevalance of anti-HEV IgM antibodies was 0,25 %. The prevalance of anti-HEV IgG of women were approximately two fold higher than men. According to the anti-HEV IgG prevalance, the without occupation expose to animal were 1%, the animal husbandry were 7% and the veterians and the butcher were 2% were found. Conclusion: The prevalance of anti-HEV in the North Cyprus (3%) was found low such as the prevalance of the Turkey (5%). The prevalance of anti-HEV IgG in animal husbandry were higher that the other groups because of they may be more spend of time and contact with animals. The prevalance of IgM results suggested that the possibility of outbreaks may be low in North Cyprus This study was the first seroprevalance analysis of North Cyprus according to the population number. This study supported by ‘’Viral Hepatit Savaşım Derneği’’


Özet

Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta hayvancılıkla uğraşan kişilerde hepatit E seroprevalansının saptanmasıdır. Gereç ve yöntem: Hepatit E seroprevalansının saptanması amacıyla çalışma 4 grupta yapılmıştır; hayvanlarla teması olmayan grup, hayvan besi ve yetiştiricleri, veterinerler ve kasaplar. Çalışmada 400 kan örneği gruplardan toplanmıştır. Bütün serum örnekleri, ticari olarak temin edilen Eliza kitleri ile üretici firmanın önerileri doğrultusunda çalışılmıştır. İstatistiksel analiz student Ti-test kullanılarak yapılmıştır, p>0.05’den küçük bulunan değerler anlamlı Kabul edilmiştir. Bulgular: Çalışmada araştırılan 400 serum örneğinde anti-HEV IgG pozitifliği %3 olarak bulunmuştur. Anti-HEV IgM pozitfliği ise %0.25 olarak saptanmıtır. Kadınlarda anti-HEV IgG pozitfliği erkeklere oranla yaklaşık iki kat fazla bulunmuştur. Hayvancılıkla ilişiği olmayanlarda anti-HEV IgG pozitfliği %1, hayvan yetişticileri ve besicilerde %7, veterinerler ve kasaplarda % 2 olarak saptanmıştır. Sonuç: Anti-HEV IgG seroprevalansı Türkiye’de (%5) olduğu gibi, Kuzey Kıbrıs’tada (%3) oranında düşük olarak saptanmıştır. Hayvan yetiştiricileri ve besicilerde anti-HEV IgG pozitifliğinin diğer gruplara göre daha yüksek saptanması, bu grubun hayvanlarla daha uzun süreli temasta olmaları ile ilişkilendirilebilir. Anti-HEV IgM seroprevalansının düşük bulunması Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta olası bir salgın gelişme riskinin az olduğunu düşündürmektedir. Bu çalışma Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta hepatit E seroprevalansı ile ilgili ilk araştırmadır. Bu çalışma ‘’Viral Hepatit Derneği’’ tarafından desteklenmiştir.

ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR OF NORTH CYPRUS PHARMACIST TOWARDS NON-PRESCRIPTION ANTIBIOTICS SALES

Conference Paper Turkish Journal of Biochemistry, Volume 41, Issue 3 suppl, 2016, Pages p-042

Abstract

Objective: Irrational use of drugs is an economic and medical problem in many developed and developing countries around the world. The aim of this study is to determine the sales ratio of non-prescription antibiotics in pharmacies which is the biggest category of the antibiotic group sold as well as the indications that lead to its’ prescription. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four pharmacies out of 168 pharmacies located in North Cyprus were involved in the study with 50% stratified systematic sampling, questionnaires were filled and a consent form was signed by the participating pharmacists. Results: The pharmacists involved in the study stated that non-prescribed antibiotics were demanded from the pharmacists and all except two (97.6%), responded positively to this demand. It has also been identified in the study that 41.5% of the daily sale of antibiotics in the first half of the year 2014 was nonprescribed. The most purchased antibiotics either with or without prescription was found to be the penicillin and its derivatives with 76.2% and upper respiratory tract with 86.9%. Conclusions: The rate is found in North Cyprus to be (41.5%), compared with the studies conducted in Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain 47% and Egypt 50.4% that designated the non prescribed antibiotics purchased from the public pharmacies. The rate of sale of non-prescribed antibiotics in North Cyprus has been found to be at a higher level compared to the rates in many developed and developing countries.


Özet

Amaç: İrrasyonel ilaç kullanımı dünya çapında birçok az gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkede ekonomik ve tıbbi bir sorundur. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Kıbrıs’ta bulunana eczanelerde reçetesiz antibiyotik satış oranlarının saptanması ve satılan antibiyotiklerin hangi tıbbi endikasyon tedavisi için olduğunun belirlenmesidir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta bulunan 168 eczaneden %50 sistematik örneklem ile 84 eczaneye ulaşılmıştır. Eczacılardan izin alınarak kendilerine anket uygulanmıştır. Anketler çalışmaya katılan eczacılar tarafından imzalanmıştır. Bulgular: Çalışmaya dahil olan ezcacıların ikisi hariç tamamı (%97,6), reçetesiz antibiyotik taleplerini karşıladıklarını belirtmişlerdir. Çalışmamızda 2014 yılının ilk altı ayında günlük reçetesiz antibiyotik satışı oranının %41,5 olduğu belirlenmiştir. Reçeteli ya da reçetesiz olarak en çok satılan antibiyotik % 76,2 oranı ile penisilin ve türevleridir. %.86,9 oranında üst solunum yolu enfeksiyonu nedeni ile antibiyotik satışı yapılmıştır. Sonuç: Yapılan çalışmalarda eczaneden reçetesiz antibiyotik alma oranı Yunanistan, İtalya, Malta ve İspanya’da %47, Mısır’da %50,4 verilmektedir. Bu oran Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta %41,5 olarak bulunmuştur. Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta reçetesiz antibiyotik satış hızı, birçok gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerin oranlarına göre daha yüksek düzeyde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte, üst solunum yolu enfeksiyonları en sık viral etkenlerle oluşmasına rağmen, reçeteli/reçetesiz antibiyotik satışının bu grup için yapıldığı belirlenmiştir.

The change in muscarinic receptor subtypes in different brain regions of rats treated with fluoxetine or propranolol in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder

Original Article Behavioural brain research, Volume 232, Issue 1, 2012, Pages 124-129

Abstract


Özet

Altered ratio of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins in different brain regions of female rats in model of post-traumatic stress disorder

Original Article Turkish Journal of Biochemistry, Volume 40, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 1-7

Abstract

Objective: The B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins governs mitochondrial membrane permeability where the programmed apoptotic process is controlled by the balance between proapoptotic (Bax) and antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins. We aimed to investigate the [Bcl-2]/[Bax] in different brain regions in a post-traumatic stress disorder rat model. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dirty cat litter (trauma) for 10 min and the protocol was repeated 1 week later with a trauma reminder (clean litter) in ...


Özet

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The ameliorating effect of Saint John’s wort on 5-fluorouracilinduced ileum and colon

Original Article Turkish Society of Anatomy and Clinical Anatomy (TSACA), Volume 9, Issue 2, 2015, Pages 168

Abstract

Introduction: 5-Fluorouracil is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment. However, it has some side effects including ileitis and colitis. St. John's Wort (SJW) is an herbal medicine that is used for therapy of mild depression mainly besides it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible preventive effect of Saint John’s Wort against ileitis and colitis which are induced by 5-Fluorouracil. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats (220-300 g) were used in the study and three experimental groups (n=5): Group (1) –saline treated control group, Group (2) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treated group, and Group (3) 5-FU + Saint John’s Wort treated group. Following 150 mg/kg dose of 5-FU, either saline or Saint John’s Wort (300 mg/kg) were administered in each day during 4 days. After decapitation, ileum and colon tissues of the intestine were removed for histopathology. The ileum and colon tissues were fixed in 10% formaldehyde,then processedroutinely for light microscope. Apoptotic injury (cas-3,cas-9, bcl 2/bax) was shown via Western Blot method. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: In the colon and ileum tissues, the control groups demonstrated regular epithelial and glandular morphology with abundance of goblet cells. In the colon tissue, 5-FU treatment degenerated the glands prominently and had led to epithelial disorganization along with a high degree of accumulation of leukocytes in lamina propria. The SJW treatment appeared to have reduced the degeneration of glands and concentration of leukocytes. In the ileum, there was degeneration with severe desquamation in the epithelium, and accumulation of leukocytes in the lamina propria, SJW treatment led to a moderate regeneration in the epithelium and glands. Western Blot method results confirmed histology. Conclusion: Treatment with SJW ameliorated the tissue degeneration by reducing the glandular hyperplasia and congestion besides epithelial reorganization


Özet

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The ameliorating effect of Saint John’s wort on 5-fluorouracilinduced ileum and colon

Original Article Turkish Society of Anatomy and Clinical Anatomy (TSACA), Volume 9, Issue 2, 2015, Pages 168

Abstract

Abstract


Özet

d-Cycloserine acts via increasing the GluN1 protein expressions in the frontal cortex and decreases the avoidance and risk assessment behaviors in a rat traumatic stress model

Original Article Behavioural brain research, Volume 293, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 227-233

Abstract

Abstract d-cycloserine (DCS), an FDA approved anti-tuberculosis drug has extensively been studied for its cognitive enhancer effects in psychiatric disorders. DCS may enhance the effects of fear extinction trainings in animals during exposure therapy and hence we investigated the effects of DCS on distinct behavioral parameters in a predator odor stress model and tested the optimal duration for repeated daily administrations of the agent.


Özet

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The effect of a combination of D-cycloserine treatment and extinction therapy on M1 protein expression in rats traumatised with cat odor

Original Article ECNP, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 183-184

Abstract

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder. Mainstream symptoms of PTSD are difficult to treat and tend to reappear after the treatment in spite of the availability of a variety of psychopharmacological agents. Exposure-based therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) still remain as effective evidence-based interventions with long-lasting outcomes for traumatized patients [1]. CBT relies on extinction learning of the previously learned fear. Since the treatment outcomes of CBT are highly promising, researchers tended in the last decade to develop pharmacological agents that have the capacity to enhance the effects of exposure-based treatments. D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial agonist of the N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, acting via the glycine binding subunit. DCS has recently been under thorough investigation due to its ability to facilitate fear extinction learning [2]. Muscarinic receptors play an important role in learning and memory processes, as do NMDA receptors, and a possible modulation is proposed between these receptors [3]. A recent study suggested a role for muscarinic receptors in the pathophysiology of PTSD and authors reported increased levels of type 1 nuscarinic receptors (M1) in the hippocampus in response to traumatic stress [4]. In the current study, we used cat fur odor to create traumatic stress in rats and investigated the effects of 3-day extinction sessions alone, 3 daily DCS administrations each followed by an extinction session, or 5 daily DCS administrations each followed by an extinction session, on overall anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze, and evaluated the change in M1 protein level in different brain regions in response to stress and the treatments described above. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to the apparatus for 4 days and subjected to cat odor blocks for 10 min. The rats were subjected to extinction training procedures with a no-odor block as described by Blanchard et al., 2001. The rats were divided into control (non-traumatized) and extinction training session groups; extinction procedures were applied for 3 or 5 days with DCS adjuvant (15 mg/kg). One day after the last extinction session rats were individually placed on the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to no-odor blocks, in order to assess their anxiety indices. Upon completion of behavioral experiments, the rats were sacrificed, amygdaloid complex, frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampi were taken, and Western blotting experiments were performed for M1 protein expression. On the test day, traumatic stress significantly increased the anxiety index (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the non-traumatized control group and any of the treatment groups. In the dorsal hippocampi, extinction procedures produced decreases in M1 expression, but 3-day DCS adjuvant produced significant increases in protein levels (p<0.05). In the frontal cortex and amygdaloid complex, however, decreases were observed in M1 protein levels (p <0.05). In all regions, 3-day extinction procedures with DCS adjuvant reversed these changes significantly (p<0.05). These changes supply muscarinic evidence for the efficacy of DCS adjuvant in extinction procedures in posttraumatic stress disorder.


Özet

The effect of a combination of D-cycloserine treatment and extinction therapy on M1 protein expression in rats traumatised with cat odor

Original Article European Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 25, Issue 2, 2015, Pages 183-184

Abstract

Purpose of the study: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder. Mainstream symptoms of PTSD are difficult to treat and tend to reappear after the treatment in spite of the availability of a variety of psychopharmacological agents. Exposure-based therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) still remain as effective evidence-based interventions with long-lasting outcomes for traumatized patients [1]. CBT relies on extinction learning of the previously learned fear. Since the treatment outcomes of CBT are highly promising, researchers tended in the last decade to develop pharmacological agents that have the capacity to enhance the effects of exposure-based treatments. D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial agonist of the N-methylD-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, acting via the glycine binding subunit. DCS has recently been under thorough investigation due to its ability to facilitate fear extinction learning [2]. Muscarinic receptors play an important role in learning and memory processes, as do NMDA receptors, and a possible modulation is proposed between these receptors [3]. A recent study suggested a role for muscarinic receptors in the pathophysiology of PTSD and authors reported increased levels of type 1 nuscarinic receptors (M1) in the hippocampus in response to traumatic stress [4]. In the current study, we used cat fur odor to create traumatic stress in rats and investigated the effects of 3-day extinction sessions alone, 3 daily DCS administrations each followed by an extinction session, or 5 daily DCS administrations each followed by an extinction session, on overall anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze, and evaluated the change in M1 protein level in different brain regions in response to stress and the treatments described above. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to the apparatus for 4 days and subjected to cat odor blocks for 10 min. The rats were subjected to extinction training procedures with a no-odor block as described by Blanchard et al., 2001. The rats were divided into control (non-traumatized) and extinction training session groups; extinction procedures were applied for 3 or 5 days with DCS adjuvant (15 mg/kg). One day after the last extinction session rats were individually placed on the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to no-odor blocks, in order to assess their anxiety indices. Upon completion of behavioral experiments, the rats were sacrificed, amygdaloid complex, frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampi were taken, and Western blotting experiments were performed for M1 protein expression. S184 P.1.b. Basic and clinical neuroscience - Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology Results: On the test day, traumatic stress significantly increased the anxiety index (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the non-traumatized control group and any of the treatment groups. In the dorsal hippocampi, extinction procedures produced decreases in M1 expression, but 3-day DCS adjuvant produced significant increases in protein levels (p<0.05). In the frontal cortex and amygdaloid complex, however, decreases were observed in M1 protein levels (p <0.05). In all regions, 3-day extinction procedures with DCS adjuvant reversed these changes significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: These changes supply muscarinic evidence for the efficacy of DCS adjuvant in extinction procedures in posttraumatic stress disorder


Özet

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The effect of alpha lipoic acid on rat kidneys in methotrexate induced oxidative injury

Original Article European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, Volume 19, Issue 11, 2015, Pages 2132-2139

Abstract

Abstract.–OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant and anti- inflammatory effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on methotrexate (MTX) induced kidney injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups; control, ALA, MTX and MTX with ALA groups. A single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) was administered to make kidney injury to groups 3 and 4, intraperitoneally. The ALA was administered intraperitonealy in groups 2 and 4 and the other groups received saline


Özet

Abstract.–OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant and anti- inflammatory effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on methotrexate (MTX) induced kidney injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups;

Effect of Chronic Antidepressant Treatment in a Rat Model of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Original Article MolBiyoKon, Volume 4, Issue 169, 2015, Pages 209

Abstract

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a situation characterized with overt excitation, flashbacks and trying to avoid the experiences reminding the trauma. We hypothesized that learning is associated in the recall process of PTSD. This study was planned to the behavioral and the molecular efficacy of chronic fluoxetine treatments on M1, M2 and M4 muscarinic receptor subytpes expression in frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus and amygdaloid complex by using “Western-blotting” in a rat model of PTSD. The rats were habituated to the housing conditions for a week with a reversed 12 h light-dark cycle with unlimited water and standart rat chow. In this model, the rats were exposed to dirty (used) cat litter (trauma) as a situational reminder for 10 min and re-exposed to cat litter (clean) one month later for recalling the predator stress. The rats also received i.p. fluoxetine (2,5 mg/kg/day) or physiological saline treatments for 30 days between exposure sessions. Control rats were only exposed to clean litter. Anxiety indices and cumulative freezing times were calculated from the parameters obtained from elevated plus maze[1]. Western blot analyses were employed in the homogenates of the selected brain regions [2]. Anxiety indices of test animals (n = 8) increased from 0.62±0.08 to 0.91 ± 0.02 in female rats exposed to cat litter using as a stituational reminder. Chronic fluextine (2.5?mg/kg, IP, 30 days) treatment restored anxiety scores of rats towards control values. The mean of cumulative freezing time was 102 ± 10 s in rats subjected to predator scent, being significantly different from that of controls (60 ± 8 s) and saline treated stressed rats (51 ± 13 s; p < 0.05). Chronic fluoxetine treatment changed muscarinic receptor expression in PTSD model in rats. In the frontal cortex, the expression of M2 receptor was found to be increased in traumatised rats . In the dorsal hippocampus, an increase in M1 subtype and a decrease in M4 subtype were detected. Fluoxetine was found to be effective in terms of restoring the changes in the expression of muscarinic receptor composition of the hippocampus. A decrease in the M4 subtype was detected in the amygdaloid complex. Chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed the changes in receptor expressions of frontal cortex and hippocampus. Reference(s) [1] Pelow, S., Chopin, P., File, S.E., Briley, M., 1985 Validation of open-closed arm entries in an elevated plus maze as measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neuroscience Methods, 14, 149-167. [2] Aykaç, A., Aydın, B., Cabadak, H., Gören M:Z., 2012 The change in muscarinic receptor subtypes in different brain regions of rats treated with fluoxetine or propranolol in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behavioural Brain Research 232, 124– 129.


Özet

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Protective effect of betaine against burn-induced pulmonary injury in rats

Original Article Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg, Volume 22, Issue 5, 2016, Pages 417-422

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine possible protective effect of betaine treatment against oxidative injury in pulmonary tissue induced with thermal trauma. METHODS: Under ether anesthesia, shaved dorsum of Wistar albino rats was exposed to a 90°C water bath for 10 seconds to induce burn injury. Betaine was administered orally (250 mg/kg) for a period of 21 days before burn injury, and single dose of betaine was administered after thermal injury. Control group rats were exposed to 25°C water bath for 10 seconds. Upon conclusion of experiment, rats were decapitated and blood was collected for analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Lung tissue samples were taken to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na+/K+-ATPase activity, in addition to histological analysis. RESULTS: Burn injury caused significant increase in both cytokine levels and LDH activity. In lung samples, raised MDA levels, MPO activity, and reduced GSH levels and Na+/K+-ATPase activity were found due to burn injury. CONCLUSION: Treatment of rats with betaine significantly restored GSH level and Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and decreased MDA level and MPO activity. According to the findings of the present study, betaine significantly diminishes burn-induced damage in tissue.


Özet

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The role of GluN1 activated nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder

Original Article Marmara Medical Journal, Volume 29, Issue 2, 2016, Pages 67-72

Abstract

Objectives: Activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and interrelated alterations of calmodulin and ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluN1) levels are unknown in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were exposed to to dirty cat litter, and then placed on an elevated plus maze. An anxiety index was calculated and tissue samples from hippocampus and amygdala were prepered in order to to detect calmodulin, NOS and GluN1 by immunoblotting. Results: The anxiety indices of the traumatized rats were markedly higher than those of the controls (p<0.05). GluN1 and calmodulin levels were decreased in the dorsal hippocampus and amygdaloid complex of the traumatized rats. NOS expression increased significantly in both the amygdaloid complex and dorsal hippocampus where the increase was statistically more prominent in the amygdaloid complex (p< 0.001) than in the dorsal hippocampus of the traumatized rats (p<0.05). Conclusion: Predator exposure in rats causes long-lasting anxiogenic effects associated with increases in NOS and decreases in GluN1 expressions in brain areas related to PTSD symptoms and excitotoxicity. The results suggest that excitotoxicity occurs through other mechanisms rather than GluN1 receptors.


Özet

Amaç: Post travmatik stres bozukluğunda (PTSD) iyonotropik glutamat reseptör (GluN1)’lerinin (GluN1) ve kalmodülinin birlikte etki ederek nitrik asit sentaz (NOS) aktivasyonu yaptığı bilinmemektedir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Her iki cinsiyetten Sprague-Dawley sıçanları kirli kedi kumuyla saldırgan hayvan kokusuna maruz bırakıldıktan sonra, sıçanlara yükseltilmiş t labirenti deneyleri uygulanmıştır. Deney sonrası sıçanların anksiyete endeksleri hesaplanmış ve kalmodülin, NOS ve GluN1 ölçümleri için hipokampüs ve amigdala doku örnekleri Western Blot yöntemi için hazırlanmıştır. Bulgular: Travmatize edilen sıçanların anksiyete indeksleri kontrol grubuna göre anlamlı olarak yüksek bulunmuştur (p < 0.05). Dorsal hipokampüs ve amygdaloid komplekste travmatize sıçanların GluN1 ve kalmodülin düzeyleri azalmıştır. NOS ekspresyonu her iki bölgede artış göstermesine karşın, amigdaloid kompleksteki artış (p < 0.001) dorsal hipokampüse göre (p < 0.05) istatiksel olarak daha anlamlı bulunmuştur. Sonuç: Saldırgan hayvan kokusu maruziyeti sıçanlarda, PTSD semptomları ve eksitotoksisite ile ilişkili beyin alanlarında nNOS ekspresyonunda artma ve GluN1 reseptörlerinde azalma ile birlikte uzun süre devam eden anksiyete ilişkili etkilere neden olmaktadır. Sonuçlarımız, NOS aktivitesinin GluN1 dışındaki nedenlerle arttığını göstermektedir

The effects of citalopram and low-dose risperidone on memory and anxiety in rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress

Original Article Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Volume -, Issue 1-9, 2018, Pages -

Abstract

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Many clinical reports describe the beneficial effects of low-dose atypical antipsychotic added to the antidepressants in the management of anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose atypical antipsychotic when added to antidepressant treatment on cholinergic M1 receptor expression in the hippocampus and amygdale region in learning and cognitive disorders caused by anxiety. METHODS: The treatments were administered by using different test models on memory, learning, and anxiety, as well as the effect on muscarinic M1 receptor expression levels were assessed. Citalopram (10 mg/kg/sc) and combination [citalopram and risperidone (1 mg/kg/ sc)] treatments were applied after stress induction using the immobilization model in rats. Animals groups were randomly divided as: control, stress, stress + citalopram, and stress + combination treatment group. Rats in stress groups were immobilized in cages for 4 h a day for 15 days. On days 1–5, groups were subjected to Morris water maze (MWM), open field, and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. RESULTS: MWM test results have shown that citalopram induces an anxiolytic effect. Low-dose risperidone treatment has increased the antidepressant-like activity of citalopram in all tests. In OFT the number of squares that rats were circulating on the plane was increased and the time spent by the rats on the maze platform was also increased in MWM. In addition to this, the time spent by the rats on the open arms of the EPM test were also increased. Since the combined treatment increased the discovery of the environment and the active behaviour in tests; all those reflected the increase in general activity. Findings also suggest that treatments may play an effective role in altering the expression level of M1 receptors which are effective in learning and recalling information in the amygdale and the hippocampus. Combination treatment has been shown to provide a meaningful correction of stress-induced memory and learning functions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that combination treatment may help reduce the stress-induced impairments in cognitive functions


Özet

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Models of rat behavior used for studies of anxiety

Review Marmara Medical Journal , Volume 28, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 1-7

Abstract

This review focuses on the methods of study that investigated the anxiolytic effects of new drugs with animal models. In a research setting, researchers investigate inquiry and recognition behavior changes of animals with anxiety in response to drug therapy. This forms the basis of a research. Although, “anxious” behaviors of rats do not exactly match the actual human behavior, they are still used as a model of human behavior. Several different stressor agents have been used including electric shocks, tilting the cage, olfactory bulbectomy, elevation of the setup, changing the lighting situation, under water trauma or exposure to predator materials. In these studies, generally the reaction to the stress is tested by observing the changes in the “anxious” behavior, cognitive impairment, fear and decreased social interaction. Frequently used models are; open field test, forced swimming test, social isolation, conflict tests, repeated stress test, tail suspension test, elevated maze tests, single prolonged test, chronical mild stress and predator scent tests. We explain various rat models and their properties and show how they are used to create anxiety with different stressor agents. Ease and repeatability of these models suggest that they are effective for studying drugs for the prevention and treatment of anxiety.


Özet

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Importance of Apoptosis

Review Clin Exp Health Sci , Volume -, Issue -, 2016, Pages 1-5

Abstract

Apoptosis is programmed cell death, which actively occurs in many physiological processes. It can be triggered in two ways: (i) defects in growth factor, DNA damage, and other many factors that can cause cellular stress, which is an intracellular pathway, and (ii) ligand binding to death receptors and activation of caspases. The apoptotic cell count can be determined by the health of the whole organism. A higher apoptotic ratio can indicate a decrease in the number of cells and tissue damage, while a lower apoptotic ratio can indicate an increase in the number of cells. Irregularity in apoptotic signals can play primary or secondary roles in various diseases/disorders. Research on apoptosis depends on neurodegeneration has been initiated in the past few years. Definition of apoptotic signal pathways and apoptotic regulation and determination of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes are the main topics that have accelerated research on apoptosis. Neurodegenerative disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder neuronal damage associated with changes in brain structure and function may be related to the mitochondrial stresses. In physiological conditions, apoptosis is crucial for the organism, while in pathological conditions, apoptosis can cause uncontrolled cell division. Development of therapeutic medicine that inhibits the cell death may be the new choice of treatment for neurodegenerative diseases/disorders


Özet

Programlanmış hücre ölümü olan apoptoz birçok fizyolojik süreçte aktif rol oynamaktadır. Apoptozun, büyüme faktörlerinin eksikliği, DNA hasarı ve birden fazla faktörü içeren çeşitli hücresel stresle aktive olan ‘hücre içi’ ve ölüm reseptörlerine ligandın bağlanmasıyla kaspazların aktive olduğu ‘hücre dışı’ olmak üzere iki yolağı vardır. Apoptotik hücre sayısı ile organizmanın sağlıklı olup olmadığı belirlenir. Apoptoz oranının azalması hücre sayısını arttırırken, apoptoz oranının artması hücre sayısını azaltarak dokularda tahribata neden olmaktadır. Apoptotik sinyallemede düzensizlik çeşitli hastalıklarda/bozukluklarda primer ya da sekonder rol oynamaktadır. Son yıllarda apoptozun nörodejeneratif hastalıklarla ilgili çalışmaları ön plana çıkmaya başlamıştır. Apoptotik sinyal yolaklarının daha iyi tanımlanması, pro- ve anti-apoptotik genlerin belirlenmesiyle, çalışmalar hız kazanmıştır. Travma Sonrası Stres Bozukluğu gibi nörodejeneratif bozukluklarda beyindeki yapısal ve fonksiyonel değişiklikler mitokondriyal stres ile ilişkilidir. Fizyolojik koşullarda hayati öneme sahip olan apoptoz, patolojik koşullarda mekanizmanın tetiklenmesine ve kontrolsüz hücre çoğalmasına yol açmaktadır. Hücre ölümünü engelleyen terapötik ilaçların geliştirilmesiyle apoptoz aracılı nörodejenaratif bozuklukların tedavisine yeni umutlar oluşacaktır

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